Jeffery could return to the field in two weeks, according to a source familiar with the situation.
The Chicago Tribune was the first to report the details of the surgery.
Jeffery was supposed to make a public appearance Tuesday night but had to cancel due to the upcoming procedure.
Jeffery hurt the knee in the Bears' 32-7 loss to the San Francisco 49ers and spent the fourth quarter on the team's bench with his right knee wrapped in ice. The second-round pick gave the impression his injury wasn't serious when he jogged back to the visitors locker room with his helmet on after the game, but clearly that wasn't the case.
This is the second injury of the season for Jeffery, who fractured his right hand in the Bears' win over the Jacksonville Jaguars on Oct. 7 and missed the next four games before returning against the 49ers.
Jeffery has 16 catches for 199 yards and two touchdowns on the season.