Sylvester returns for a second stint with the Steelers. The team released the fourth-year veteran during the preseason when they trimmed their roster to 75 players.
Stevenson will provide depth behind rookie Vince Williams at strongside inside linebacker.
Wilson started two games at strongside inside linebacker following a season-ending bicep injury sustained by Larry Foote.
He gave way to Williams, who received a vote of confidence from coach Mike Tomlin on Tuesday, as Wilson had been slowed by a hamstring injury.
The former undrafted free agent would have been questionable to play Sunday against the Jets in East Rutherford, N.J, which may have necessitated the re-signing of Sylvester.
A fifth-round draft pick of the Steelers in 2010, Sylvester played primarily on special teams in his first three seasons with the team.
Sylvester was part of a defense that held the Patriots to 243 yards of total offense.