Thompkins suffered a concussion in last week's AFC divisional playoff game against the Indianapolis Colts.
Dobson missed the divisional round with a foot injury, which he suffered in the season finale against Buffalo.
There were no major surprises among the Patriots' inactive players Sunday, with cornerback Justin Green, tight end D.J. Williams, linebacker Steve Beauharnais, guard Chris Barker, defensive tackle Isaac Sopoaga and defensive end Jake Bequette joining Thompkins.
For the Broncos, quarterback Zac Dysert, running back Ronnie Hillman, cornerback Marquice Cole, offensive tackle Vinston Painter, guard Chris Kuper, tight end Joel Dreessen and defensive tackle Sione Fua were inactive.