Stallworth was a member of the Patriots in 2007 and also signed with the team in training camp this season before being cut prior to the start of the campaign.
The Patriots, who were thin at receiver even before Edelman's foot injury, worked out the 32-year-old Stallworth last week.
Pro Football Talk first reported the agreement.
In August, coach Bill Belichick raved about Stallworth's work in Patriots training camp.
"I think Donte' has had a solid camp," Belichick said at the time. "He's shown that he still has his speed, athletic, gets down the field well. And he's tough; he comes in and blocks. Is good with the ball in his hands. I think he's been very competitive with that group."