The Texans waived Ryan Denney to make room for Anderson.
Anderson could be an ideal fit for the Texans, who have been in need of an edge rusher after losing Connor Barwin to a season-ending injury in Houston's Week 1 win over the Indianapolis Colts. The Texans will continue to use defensive lineman Antonio Smith on the inside on third-down situations.
Anderson struggled to live up to the promise of his rookie season in 2006, when he set a franchise record with 12 sacks, the highest total for an NFL rookie since 1982. He had just nine sacks in his three subsequent seasons and has none this season.
Houston signed Denney as a free agent after backup defensive end Connor Barwin broke his ankle in the season opener. Denney was inactive for last week's game against Oakland.
Information from ESPN NFL Insider Adam Schefter and The Associated Press contributed to this report.