Coach Pete Carroll said both players were hospitalized and were expected to stay overnight for observation. He said "all indications are that they are OK."
With Chicago leading 7-0, Seattle took over at its 24 and on first down, Carlson caught a pass from Matt Hasselbeck along the left sideline.
He tried to jump over Chicago's Danieal Manning but got upended, his helmet and right shoulder taking the brunt of the fall. Carlson stayed down for several minutes surrounded by medical personnel and teammates. He was seen moving his legs before being placed on a board and carted off the field.
Trufant was hurt making a tackle on Bears tight end Kellen Davis in the third quarter. His head appeared to collide with Davis' knee and he also was taken off the field on a board.
The Bears lost safety Chris Harris in the third quarter with a hip injury.
After the game, he tweeted: "We are back in the NFC championship. Great team effort. And yes everyone I'm okay. No way I miss next week!"