Toews received 75 first-place votes on 179 ballots and edged Boston Bruins forward Patrice Bergeron by 10 points. Toews finished with 1,260 points, and Bergeron had 1,250 points to go with 78 first-place votes. Detroit Red Wings forward Pavel Datsyuk finished third with 737 points.
The award is voted on by the Professional Hockey Writers' Association.
"It feels pretty amazing," Toews said in a video on the team's website. "I don't think it matters what category you're in, to be nominated for an award along with guys like Pavel Datsyuk and Patrice Bergeron, I think is a pretty amazing thing. I think you really have a lot of respect for those two guys, and the way they play the game.
"For the most part, I don't think I'd have the chance to be here if it wasn't for the team that I'm with right now. All these guys out there making me look good on the ice, I think that helps me every day. Definitely an honor to accept that award, though."
The Ottawa Senators' Paul MacLean won the Jack Adams Award as top coach, which is selected by the NHL Broadcasters' Association. MacLean had 28 first-place votes and 206 points. The Blackhawks' Joel Quenneville finished second with 22 first-place votes and 160 points.
"It was a very proud day for myself, my family and the Ottawa Senators organization and what we've gone through. We're pretty pleased here today," MacLean said.
Tampa Bay Lightning forward Martin St. Louis won the Lady Byng Memorial Trophy -- awarded for sportsmanship and ability -- for the third time in four seasons. St. Louis had 47 first-place votes and 824 points, and Blackhawks forward Patrick Kane finished second with 44 first-place votes and 785 points.
"I don't think you start the season thinking you're going to win the Lady Byng, but all in all, you just try to push the envelope without getting caught, I guess," St. Louis said. "You play hard and stay out of the box, but at the same time, by no means you're going through the season trying to accomplish that."
Harding was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis last fall and missed 33 games as he underwent treatment. On April 22, he was activated from the injured list and returned to the Wild lineup.
"I feel better than ever," Harding said. "I just won an NHL award. It's something that I never thought I'd do in my life ever, and it happened with MS.
"I played five playoff games. I didn't know if I'd ever play a playoff game, and that came with MS. I want people to believe that goals are possible. Just because you get a label of a disease doesn't mean you're not going to complete your goals. That's what I hope people take out of this."
Toews had a plus-28 rating, was tied for first with Datsyuk with 56 takeaways, was second in faceoff winning percentage at 59.9 and played an average of 1 minute, 25 seconds per game on the NHL's third-ranked penalty kill during the regular season. The Blackhawks won the Presidents' Trophy and had a league-best 2.02 goals-against average.
Toews was also a finalist for the award in the 2010-11 season, when he finished second.
The Blackhawks also had four other players receive votes. Marian Hossa finished 10th with 78 points, Kane and Michael Frolik were tied for 25th with seven points, and Marcus Kruger was 30th with six points.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.