Contract details for Roper were not immediately known.
Roper, who also serves as Duke's assistant head coach and quarterbacks coach, will replace Brent Pease, who was fired after the conclusion of the 2013 regular season.
Roper has served as Duke's offensive coordinator since 2008. This year, the Blue Devils ranked 68th nationally in total offense, averaging 408.1 yards per game. The Blue Devils averaged 31.6 points per game.
In 2012, Roper helped direct the Blue Devils to a school single-season record of 410 points and 31.5 points per game, the fifth-highest total in school history.
Roper has extensive history in the SEC. He got his coaching start at Tennessee while serving as a graduate assistant from 1996-98 and then followed current Duke head coach David Cutcliffe to Ole Miss, where he spent six years coaching quarterbacks and was the passing game coordinator during his final three seasons.
In 2005, Roper served as Kentucky's quarterbacks coach before serving as running backs coach at Tennessee in 2006 and '07.
Pease's dismissal came on the heels of an injury-riddled season in which Florida ranked last in the SEC in total offense (316.7 yards per game) and scoring (18.8) during a 4-8 season. It was the first time since 1979 that the Gators suffered a losing season and the first time in 22 years that they failed to make a bowl game.
Florida scored 30 or more points just twice during the 2013 season, tying for 112th nationally in scoring offense. The Gators also ranked 113th nationally in total offense.
Florida is expected to run more of a spread offense with more tempo under Roper, according to sources.