Scheppers, who became a starter in the spring and got the opening day nod because of an injury to Yu Darvish, went back to the bullpen when he returned and made four appearances in six games.
The 27-year-old Scheppers missed a month and a half with the original elbow problem after making four starts. He is 0-1 with 9.00 ERA.
"I think it's going to be a more prolonged shutdown period," general manager Jon Daniels said. "What that is exactly, six weeks long, we haven't determined yet. He's going to be no throw for a while. Dr. Meister did not feel it was based on the MRI a surgical situation. He's going to be no throw for a significant portion of the summer."
Scheppers said it didn't feel as bad as the first time he went on the DL, but he felt things "flare up" on him after his outing on Tuesday.
"It's frustrating," Scheppers said. "You want to be out there pitching for your team. I'll keep do what they tell me and work to get back."
It's the 20th DL move for the injury-riddled Rangers this season.
Texas brought up right-hander Ben Rowen from Triple-A Round Rock. He has yet to appear in the majors.
Information from ESPNDallas.com's Richard Durrett and The Associated Press was used in this report.