AUGUSTA, Ga. -- Hootie Johnson and Martha Burk are a lot
alike, hard as that is to believe.
They are tenacious about their causes, steadfast in their
beliefs and convinced they've claimed the moral high ground on the
issue of female members at Augusta National Golf Club.
Of course, that's where their paths veer off sharply.
Johnson, chairman of The Masters tournament and the club, is the
staunch defender of Augusta's all-men membership, saying that is
the prerogative of a private club.
Not so, says Burk, head of National Council of Women's
Organizations. She believes Johnson is stuck in a gender time warp.
After months of verbal haggling, angry letters and attempts to
sway others to their sides, the dispute ''comes home,'' so to
The tournament starts Thursday, with Tiger Woods going for his
third straight green jacket. And TV viewers will see more of it
than ever before, thanks to the dispute.
Johnson cut loose corporate backers to shield them, he said,
from possible backlash, so The Masters is commercial free. One of
the lines Johnson drew in the sand.
Burk and her supporters plan to protest on Saturday, during the
third round. They won't be allowed to march in front of the main
gates as requested; instead, they'll be kept to a tract about a
half mile away unless a Burk lawsuit is successful.
In Burk's eyes, she's already won.
''There is a turning point that will not change, regardless of
when Augusta changes its policy,'' she said. ''It is a place that
corporate America will not want to go near, and that's
Johnson sees the dispute much differently.
''You know, some of the media tries to portray us -- or this
woman portrays us -- as being discriminatory, and being bigots. And
we're not,'' he said last year. ''We're a private club. We will
prevail because we're right.''
Many of Johnson's friends and colleagues are surprised he's
taken such a high-profile stand on such a contentious issue.
They've always known him to be a backroom operator, a genteel
banker who would prefer to solve problems quietly, without a fuss.
During the civil rights movement, Johnson remained largely under
the radar while chipping away at discrimination in his native South
Carolina. He helped get blacks elected to the state legislature. He
promoted blacks in the corporate boardroom. He ran a committee to
desegregate the state's colleges.
''He had the reputation of being progressive,'' said I.S. Leevy
Johnson, one of three blacks elected to the legislature in 1970
with Hootie Johnson's backing. ''He was diplomatic in his opinions.
He had a general concern for the feelings of others. And he was a
very strong-willed person. That's characteristic of leaders.''
His strong-willed side came to the forefront when Burk demanded
that the club initiate a female member. He fired back with an angry
statement, saying Augusta National would not admit women ''at the
point of a bayonet.''
A few weeks ago, Georgia's conservative governor, Sonny Perdue,
raised Johnson's ire by suggesting -- almost in passing -- that
everyone would like to see the club admit women at some point.
Johnson wasted no time answering with a stinging letter.
''For the governor of our state to suggest that we should
capitulate to special interest groups when the Constitution is on
our side and we have done nothing wrong is a bit surprising and
very disappointing,'' he wrote.
While Johnson appears increasingly thin-skinned, some say Burk
has gone too far by linking the membership dispute to the war in
''It's appalling that the women who are willing to lay down
their lives for democratic ideals should be shut out of this
club,'' she said recently.
Burk later said she was merely trying to compare women returning
from this war to blacks who endured continued segregation after
fighting for their country in World War II.
While detractors portray Burk as a media hound who keeps
reporters' phone numbers on her speed dial, she says that even she
is surprised at the amount of attention her Augusta campaign has
''I had no idea that golf was a separate religion, or as my son
puts it, 'Augusta is the Westminster Abbey of golf,''' she said.
Burk points to her other causes: abortion rights, lobbying for
female aid on Capitol Hill, taking part in a United Nations'
program on family planning.
''All that has gone unreported,'' she said. ''I'd kill for this
kind of attention, just to get that other stuff mentioned.''
Though some might characterize his stance on female members as
stubborn, Johnson has shown plenty of flexibility when it came to
tinkering with the club's signature event. Since taking over in
1998, he's overseen more changes than the previous three chairmen
The qualifying criteria changed, television coverage expanded
and the course underwent its biggest renovation since the club
opened in 1933.
Tiger Woods knows firsthand that Johnson will listen to
Woods and Mark O'Meara recently played a practice round at
Augusta and this is what Woods said afterward:
''I mentioned to (Johnson) that on 18, there was a tree on the
right side of the fairway, one limb that I thought was unfair.
Mark-O hit it out there 280 yards, which is good for him, and he
had no shot. I mentioned that to Hootie and he said, 'I'll go take
a look at it.'
''The next day, the limb was gone. So he does listen.''
Johnson also has gone back and forth on the club's policy of
allowing former champions to play in The Masters as long as they
like -- even when they are barely capable of getting around the
First, Johnson drew the ire of three aging former champions by
asking them not to play. Then he set up a written policy that cut
off playing privileges for everyone at age 65. Then he backtracked
again in recent days, welcoming back all former champs as long as
they feel competitive.
Augusta National avoided that sort of public mea culpa when the
issue of racially exclusive clubs came to the forefront. The club
didn't admit its first black member until 1990, but it moved
quickly after the dispute at Shoal Creek made white members-only
clubs a potential target for protests.
When it came to women, Johnson chose a different tack.
''Shoal Creek has got nothing to do with this. Nothing,'' he
said last year. ''Racial discrimination and gender are two
different things. Do you know of any Constitutional lawyer that's
ever said they were the same? Do you know any civil rights
activists that said it was the same? Do you? It's not relevant.''
To Burk, it is.
Some day, she says, there will be a woman wearing a green
It's just a matter of time.
''I don't know why the club just doesn't take the high road and
announce a change in policy on a reasonable timetable,'' Burk said.
''The club cannot see the inevitable. Instead, they have put the
world of golf, us, their members, through a ringer.''