Potter, the first Monday qualifier to win since Kyle Reifers in the 2006 Chattanooga Classic, had a tournament-record 16-under 272 total on the Kinderlou Forest Golf Club course.
The 27-year-old left-hander earned $112,500 and full Nationwide Tour membership.
"This win ranks as my highest ever," said Potter, the NGA Hooters Tour player of the year in 2006 and 2009. "I've won on other tours and they were really nice, but this one means a lot more right now."
Goggin, the Australian who won the season-opening Panama Championship, shot a 69.
Potter earned a spot in the field with a 66 on Monday at Glen Arven Country Club in Thomasville.
"The goal this week was to finish in the top 25 and get into next week's event," he said.
Potter was making his 56th Nationwide Tour start. He was a member of the tour in 2004, 2007 and 2010. In 2004, he missed the cuts in all 24 events he played.
"Going forward hopefully I can play more consistently than I have in the past," said Potter. "I used to be more of a risk-taker than I am now. I think you have to play conservative on certain holes and then there are holes you have to go for. It depends on where the pins are located. It's all about learning how to manage your game and I think I'm finally starting to do that."
Canadian Jon Mills, tied with Potter for the third-round lead, had a 79 to tie for 18th at 5 under.