Goydos completed a wire-to-wire victory in the tournament, and Langer finished second to win his third straight season points title and fourth overall.
"Wire-to-wire, baby!" Goydos said.
Goydos shot a 4-under 66 to finish at 15-under 195 on Desert Mountain's Cochise Course. He opened with a 62 in windy conditions and shot a 67 on Saturday to take a two-stroke lead over Colin Montgomerie and a four-shot advantage over Langer into the final round.
"You start out and, really, the best place you could be is way ahead, especially with Montgomerie and Langer -- Langer four shots," Goydos said. "If we played a match, he'd have to give me like two a side, so I thought it was a pretty even spot to be in. Montgomerie probably the same thing, I was lucky to get past him. These guys are Hall of Famers."
Goydos, 52, earned $440,000. He also won the Dick's Sporting Goods Open in July in New York and has four victories on the 50-and-over tour. He won twice on the PGA Tour and shot a 59 in the 2010 John Deere Classic.
"You've got to hit the ball in play here," Goydos said. "You've got to hit greens. It's not a scrambling-type golf course. At least if you do you've got to miss it in the right place, which I thought I did a very good job of all week for the most part."
Langer had a 64. Recovering from a left knee injury that forced him to withdraw from the playoff opener at Sherwood, the 59-year-old German star won the $1 million annuity as the Charles Schwab Cup season champion and topped the tour with four victories and $3,016,959.
"The guy's a superhero. I don't get it," Goydos said. "Seems like he should get older. ... I mean, he's getting better. It's his best year and he's 59. He's amazing."
In 21 tournaments this year, Langer's worst finish was a tie for 13th.
"It's incredible," Langer said. "Finishing all the tournaments throughout the year in the top 13, it's extremely tough to do. So it's difficult to put it all into words, how consistent it's been, how good it's been, but very blessed, very fortunate."
Montgomerie had a 68 to finish third at 11 under. The Scot was second in the standings, earning a $500,000 annuity.
Goydos finished third in the Charles Schwab Cup standings and earned a $300,000 annuity.