The Frenchman entered the day with a five-shot lead but with Woods, Justin Rose, Henrik Stenson and Ian Poulter among those chasing him. Dubuisson started the final round with nine straight pars but had three birdies on his last four holes for a 3-under 69 that gave him a 24-under total of 264.
"I am so happy, as I struggled early and not managing to make my first birdie to the 10th hole. I was also watching the leaderboard and I could see all the good players coming back to me," Dubuisson said.
"But then my caddy said to me that if I make one or two birdies near the end I would be fine, so then to hole that 25-foot putt for birdie on 17 and to make the 8-footer on the last was very special."
Jamie Donaldson of Wales shot a 63 -- including a hole-in-one at the 16th -- to climb up the leaderboard and finish second, two shots back.
Woods and Rose were another two strokes behind in a tie for third.
Woods, who won't play again until the World Challenge on Dec. 5 at Thousand Oaks, was looking forward to the break.
"I'm now hanging up the clubs for a little bit, so it's going to be nice," he said.
Stenson, the Race to Dubai leader, finished in a tie for seventh after a 69 as he deals with a nagging wrist injury.