He is expected to resume baseball activities in three to eight weeks, while a full recovery is estimated at six to eight weeks, the team said.
The surgery repaired the AC joint in the lefty slugger's right shoulder.
Hamilton missed more than 20 late-season games last year with shoulder and other upper-body injuries.
The shoulder injury, along with pain in his ribs and back, likely contributed to Hamilton's 0-for-13 postseason performance. The Angels were swept out of the division series by Kansas City after finishing the regular season with the majors' best record.
He also tore a ligament in his thumb last April after sliding headfirst into a base, missing more than seven weeks.
The team said Tuesday that surgery wasn't considered an option sooner because the 33-year-old outfielder's symptoms only recently resurfaced.
A former AL MVP, Hamilton is entering the third season of a five-year, $125 million contract he signed with the Angels.
He had planned to begin spring training workouts with the Angels' pitchers and catchers on Feb. 20 in Tempe, Arizona. He missed much of last season's spring training while recovering from an injured calf.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.