Carpenter got off to a good start in April, but a drop in velocity has contributed to a 5.19 ERA in his last 17 1/3 innings over the last two months.
Right-hander Pedro Beato was recalled from Triple-A Gwinnett on Tuesday to take Carpenter's spot on the 25-man roster.
Carpenter described his problem as coming "from dead legs and trying to overcompensate with the arm and the upper body."
Carpenter hasn't been the only Atlanta reliever to struggle. The Braves' bullpen, which led the majors from 2011-13 with a 2.76 ERA, ranks 10th in the NL this season with a 3.59 ERA.