Rodriguez is the Braves' starting lineup for Monday's game against the Chicago Cubs, batting seventh and playing third base.
Rodriguez said he felt "like a little kid on his birthday" to be able to play in the majors.
Rodriguez, who agreed to an $11.5 million, two-year contract with the Braves in November, hurt his shoulder when a vehicle he was driving was rammed by a stolen police car in Miami on Jan. 28. The driver of the stolen car was killed. Rodriguez's wife, Giselle, and two of their children were hospitalized with injuries she said on her Twitter account were not life-threatening.
Asked if he was surprised he was able to return so quickly after surgery, Rodriguez said his recovery was a "reminder" not do doubt "the power of God."
"I told them right out of surgery I was going to be back a lot sooner than they thought," he said.