Kershaw, who is rehabbing from a lower back strain, has been sidelined since July 24.
"I feel I've always been ready, but this is part of the process, and I'm glad to get this under my belt and ready to get up there," he said.
Kershaw allowed one run and two hits with no walks and eight strikeouts against the Omaha Storm Chasers, the Kansas City Royals' Triple-A affiliate.
He threw 64 pitches, including 43 strikes.
"It was fun to get back out there, fun to pitch again," Kershaw said. "It's been a long time, so I was glad to get back out there, and everything felt healthy and good to go, so I'm excited about the next one."
Kershaw's last major league start came July 23, when he left after 21 pitches because of tightness in his back.
A three-time Cy Young winner, he is 15-2 with a 2.04 ERA this season.