The Rays acquired Pham and $500,000 in international signing bonus allocation at the trading deadline from the St. Louis Cardinals on Tuesday, giving up three minor leaguers for what Rays general manager Erik Neander called an "impact" player.
The 30-year-old Pham had joined the Rays on Wednesday and went 0-5 in two games with his new team before suffering the injury after he was hit on the foot by Los Angeles Angels left-hander Andrew Heaney. Pham was placed on the disabled list Friday.
Adam Kolarek was called up by the Rays to take his place on the roster.
Pham had been a member of the Cardinals organization since selected on the 16th round of the 2006 amateur draft. After a series of injuries, the center fielder had a breakout season in 2017 when he hit .306 with 23 homers and 25 steals in 128 games. He was 11th in the NL MVP voting.
He is hitting .244 with 14 home runs, 41 RBI and 10 stolen bases this season.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.