The former Florida star was charged with possession of less than 20 grams of marijuana and for having an open container of alcohol early Sunday in downtown Gainesville. As a first-time offender, he was eligible for the deferred prosecution agreement, the State Attorney's Office said.
The charges will be dropped in six months if Noah meets the terms of his probation.
Noah also must pay $206 in traffic fines for two citations he received Sunday on the University of Florida campus. Noah was ticketed for driving with a suspended license without knowledge and for not wearing a seat belt.
Florida coach Billy Donovan told the Gainesville Sun that he talked to Noah.
"He's realized he made a mistake," Donovan told the newspaper. "I want to see what happens with everything that went on there. In my conversation with him, he feels bad.
"The thing I've tried to talk to him about is there are so many young kids who look up to him, and he's such a giving kid and he's always given his time. He needs to turn this into a positive and being able to help young kids because he has a great opportunity to really help a lot of people. I told him to try to turn this into a positive because he's got enough of a personality that he can do that."
Noah led the Gators to consecutive national championships before being selected ninth overall in last June's draft by the Bulls. He averaged 6.6 points and 5.6 rebounds in 74 games as a rookie.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.