Carter-Williams, one of the few bright spots in the Sixers' dismal 19-63 campaign, was only the third player since 1950-51 to lead all rookies in scoring, rebounding (6.3) and assists (6.2), joining Oscar Robertson (1960-61) and Alvan Adams (1975-76).
"Michael made an immediate impact on the court this season, but his dedication, professionalism and contributions to both the organization and the Philadelphia community make him all the more deserving of this award," Sixers owner Josh Harris said in a statement. "This is an incredibly proud moment for the 76ers and one we are thrilled to share with him, the city and our fans."
He received 104 out of a possible 124 first-place votes and finished with 569 points among balloting by national sportswriters and broadcasters. Orlando's Victor Oladipo was a distant second with 16 first-place votes and 364 points.
Allen Iverson is the only other player in Sixers history to win the award. The 11th overall selection in last year's draft out of Syracuse, Carter-Williams is the first player picked 10th or lower to win since Mark Jackson did it in 1987 for New York.
"Michael performed and represented the Sixers organization this past season in a manner befitting of the 2013-14 NBA Rookie of the Year," said co-managing owner David Blitzer. "He never stopped working from the moment he burst onto the national scene in our home opener through the final horn at last game of the season, and we are proud to congratulate him on this well-deserved award."
Carter-Williams had a spectacular debut, posting 22 points, 12 assists and nine steals to lead the Sixers to a stunning 114-110 victory over the two-time defending champion Miami Heat. He was the second rookie after Shaquille O'Neal to be the Eastern Conference Player of the Week in his first week in the NBA.
"By opening night, it was clear to us that Michael belonged," Sixers President Sam Hinkie said. "This award marks a lifetime of hard work. ... We congratulate him on this unique achievement and look forward to helping him put in the work necessary to garner even greater success in the future."
The Associated Press contributed to this report.