California-based SCP Auctions handled the sale. In June, SCP vice president Dan Imler said he expected the mouthguard to sell for at least $5,000.
The mouthguard, which has Curry's name on both it and the carrying case in which it was found, was one of several quirky items sold in the auction.
Julius Erving's handwritten notes from his 1981 MVP award acceptance speech, owned by NBA reporter Peter Vecsey, sold for $10,010, while the signed Converse shoes worn for Erving's final career game went for $8,562.
The basket stanchion used at the Great Western Forum for Los Angeles Lakers games from 1988 to 1994 sold for $21,221.
A headband worn by Lakers center Wilt Chamberlain from the early 1970s sold for $4,141. A Chamberlain warm-up from the same time period sold for $55,145, while a rare program and ticket from Chamberlain's 100-point game with the Philadelphia Warriors sold for $19,031 and $18,192, respectively.
Other items that commanded big prices included Robin Yount's 3,000th hit baseball ($34,176) and the bat he used for the hit ($49,200), Larry Bird's game-used warm-ups from Indiana State ($25,063) and Dwyane Wade's Final Four ring from his days at Marquette ($9,418).
The highest-priced item in the auction, a Joe Jackson 1909 American Caramel card, sold for $667,189.
John Wooden's UCLA jacket from the early 1970s received a bid of $85,592 but wasn't sold because the amount didn't meet the confidential reserve set for the item.