Curry, who has been sidelined with the injury since the preseason, will need a three-month recovery period. He's expected to be fully cleared and on the court before the start of July free agency.
He had a similar surgery on his right tibia during his senior season at Duke.
Curry was diagnosed with a stress reaction of his tibia in October. He had been projected to start alongside rookie guard Dennis Smith Jr. in Dallas' backcourt.
In his best NBA season, Curry averaged 12.8 points and shot 48.1 percent from the floor and 42.5 percent from 3-point range in 70 games in 2016-17.
ESPN's Tim MacMahon contributed to this report.