Hagelin earned a five-minute elbowing major for the play at 10:32 of the second period. Alfredsson left the game and did not return.
The 39-year-old veteran missed five games earlier this season after a questionable hit to the head from then-Rangers forward Wojtek Wolski in the teams' first meeting on October 29.
When asked what he thought of the hit, Senators coach Paul MacLean said: "I will let Brendan (Shanahan) see what he thinks about it."
Shanahan heads the NHL's Department of Player Safety, which is expected to review at least two additional incidents from the game, in addition to an altercation from Saturday night's Blackhawks-Coyotes game.
Carkner was ejected from the game, as was Rangers forward Brandon Dubinsky, who jumped into the brawl to help his teammate.
Shaw earned a five-minute charging major and game misconduct.
Rangers coach John Tortorella said he does not expect Hagelin to miss a game.
"If we lose Hags for a game or two, Phillips should (miss) a game or two."