Carmelo Anthony also played and started at power forward against Chicago.
Anthony suffered a right hand injury during Friday's loss to the Golden State Warriors, leaving his availability uncertain for Sunday's contest.
Shumpert's return to the lineup forced guard J.R. Smith back to the bench. The third-year guard has struggled to find consistency on offense for most of the season.
Shumpert enters play Sunday averaging 6.9 points on 37.7 percent shooting in 26.8 minutes per game.
Anthony leads the Knicks and is second in the NBA with 28.2 points per game.
New York (21-38) has lost five straight games and eight of its last nine. The Knicks entered play on Sunday six games out of the eighth and final playoff spot in the Eastern Conference.