The suit for nearly $770,000 was filed in U.S. District Court on Monday. Owens lost in arbitration earlier this year, a ruling calling him to repay $1.7 million in bonuses the team paid him when he played in Philadelphia in 2004 and '05.
Neither the team nor Owens' agent, Drew Rosenhaus, returned phone calls from The Associated Press seeking comment.
The Eagles suspended Owens for conduct detrimental to the team midway through 2005, one year after he helped them get to the Super Bowl. Owens lost $965,000 in salary from the final five games of 2005 after the team withheld game checks.
He was released after that season and the Eagles now are trying to get back the remaining sum: $769,117.
Owens subsequently signed with the Dallas Cowboys for $25 million over three years.