The 25-year-old Thurman, of Cincinnati, was indicted last week by an Erie County grand jury on the charge, accusing him of punching a 19-year-old North Royalton man, the Erie County Sheriff's Department said in a statement.
Police said Thurman punched the man in the face, breaking his jaw, on May 27 at Kalahari Waterpark Resort in Sandusky after they argued about a place in line.
Thurman's agent Safarrah Lawson said he had been unable to speak to his client and could not comment on the charges. A message seeking comment was left late Friday with Thurman's lawyer, John Michels.
Thurman was suspended indefinitely by the NFL in June after violating the league's substance abuse policy.
Thurman sat out the last two seasons after skipping a drug test and getting arrested for drunken driving. He had been reinstated by the league in April, but the Bengals released him in May after he skipped a series of voluntary workouts.
He was a second-round pick in 2005 out of Georgia.