Taylor will miss this Sunday's game against the Dallas Cowboys. He hasn't missed a game since 1999.
Taylor was kicked in the shin in Sunday's game against the Arizona Cardinals.
A Redskins source told ESPN senior NFL analyst Chris Mortensen that Taylor's shin "blew up like a balloon." Taylor was in excruciating pain Monday morning and doctors became concerned he could suffer nerve damage.
Taylor checked into a hospital and underwent a 20-minute procedure. The operation drained a pool of blood that had accumulated in the calf.
"He's going to be fine," coach Jim Zorn said. "Our problem is that he's going to be out for this Dallas game for sure. I can't tell you beyond that."
Taylor almost missed the season opener against the New York Giants after spraining his knee during a preseason game against Carolina, but he played. Taylor came to the Redskins in a preseason trade with Miami.
Taylor's streak ranks seventh among active players. He has played with various injuries during it, including a broken arm.
Taylor was just starting to find his stride with the Redskins, who traded for him on the first day of training camp after Phillip Daniels was lost for the season with a knee injury. The six-time Pro Bowl lineman, whose 118 sacks rank first among active players, sprained his knee during preseason and was ineffective in the regular-season opener against the New York Giants.
But Taylor rebounded to have his first sack with the Redskins last week and forced the Cardinals into a field goal by tipping passes on second-and-goal and third-and-goal Sunday.
Evans' meeting with reporters Monday had a deja vu feeling. He was in line to take over the starting job when Daniels got hurt -- before the Taylor trade. He was also preparing to start the opener in case Taylor didn't recover from the sprained knee.
This time, Evans' promotion to the starting lineup is for real.
"Rumor has it, Jason will probably be ready on Thursday," Evans said jokingly. "That's how it seemed to work this year. All in all, though, regardless of who starts, they'll be prepared and we're just looking forward to going to Dallas and putting on a good show."
Information from The Associated Press is included in this report