The move comes a day after Castro hurt his leg while trying to beat a ground ball that ended the third inning of the Yankees' 6-5 win against the Chicago White Sox.
After the game, neither manager Joe Girardi nor Castro was certain if the second baseman would end up on the DL. Castro was set to have an MRI on Tuesday.
Castro, 27, has had a first half that might make him worthy of an AL All-Star selection. He is batting .313 with 12 homers and 45 RBIs. If he is selected, this would be his fourth time as an All-Star and first with the Yankees.
In the corresponding roster moves Tuesday, the Yankees recalled left-hander Tyler Webb from Scranton-Wilkes Barre, selected infielder/outfielder Tyler Wade from the RailRiders and optioned right-hander Jonathan Holder to the Triple-A club.
The Yankees already are without Aaron Hicks, who was placed on the DL with a right oblique strain Monday that could keep him out for three or four weeks. CC Sabathia, Greg Bird and Adam Warren are all also on the DL.
Information from ESPN's Andrew Marchand was used in this report.