Manning told The Indianapolis Star on Tuesday that the procedure was "minimally invasive" and said he expects to make "a quick recovery."
The four-time NFL MVP told The Star that Monday's operation addressed a completely separate issue. Manning said this surgery revolved around a disk-related issue in his neck that had created discomfort recently.
"There is plenty of time for recovery," Manning told The Star, referring to the lockout that is now in its third month.
If the lockout had not been in effect, it's likely Manning would have played through the pain and skipped the second procedure altogether, a source told ESPN NFL Insider Adam Schefter.
Manning, 35, had surgery at the same Chicago hospital in March 2010 to alleviate the problems a pinched nerve had caused for about four years.
Manning is among 10 current players named in an antitrust lawsuit against the National Football League.
Colts owner Jim Irsay, allowed to communicate with Manning in this case, confirmed the surgery at the NFL meetings Tuesday.
"It's usually a six- to eight-week recovery period," Irsay said. "I think this is one you can bounce back from quickly."
Irsay said the quarterback contacted the team and its doctors before heading to Chicago for the operation.
"Now is the time to do it, the end of May," Irsay reasoned. "He's had things tougher than this before."
Before owners enacted the lockout, the Colts placed their exclusive franchise tag on Manning, tying him to the team for the 2011 season. If he plays under the tag next season, Manning would make about $23 million.
"He has a great chance to play five years," Irsay said. "He's such a tough guy, takes care of himself and really, really works hard.
"I feel good about it. This doesn't affect the way I view (a new contract)."
Still, Irsay suggested that Manning's backup quarterbacks will throw more in training camp and see plenty of action in the preseason -- if the lockout ends in time to play those games.
"It's like a baseball pitcher," Irsay said. "You want to limit the throws he takes. But I think he will be good to go for the preseason games."
In 13 seasons, Manning has broken all of the Colts' career records for quarterbacks and has never missed a start. He's taken Indy to the playoffs 11 times, captured seven AFC South titles in eight years, won two AFC championships, one Super Bowl title and a Super Bowl MVP Award.
And the Colts won more regular-season games in a ten-year span (115) than any team in NFL history.
Information from ESPN NFL Insider Adam Schefter and The Associated Press contributed to this report.