Trevathan, who had just returned to the lineup last week against the Arizona Cardinals after suffering a fracture at the top of his left tibia in training camp, was injured on the Broncos' defense's second play from scrimmage in the game.
Trevathan stayed on the ground following a 15-yard completion from Geno Smith to Eric Decker. The Broncos medical staff briefly examined Trevathan's left knee on the field and took him to the locker room.
Trevathan was the team's leading tackler last season did not play in the preseason and missed the Broncos first three games before returning to the lineup in the Broncos' 41-20 victory over the Cardinals last Sunday.
Trevathan played 55 of the defense's 58 snaps against the Cardinals. Brandon Marshall, who started in place of Trevathan earlier this season, took over at the weak-side linebacker spot against the Jets.
The Broncos won the game, 31-17.