A Dallas police officer pulled Carroll over after an unspecified traffic violation. Carroll posted bond Monday afternoon after he was booked into Dallas County Jail.
According to a team spokesman, the Cowboys are aware of the situation and gathering information.
Carroll, 30, could be subject to the NFL's personal conduct policy in which a fine or suspension could be levied.
The Cowboys signed Carroll to a three-year, $10 million deal in free agency that included $4 million guaranteed. He played for the Philadelphia Eagles from 2014 to 2016, starting all 16 games for the first time in his career last season. He had one interception and 41 tackles.
With the departures of Brandon Carr and Morris Claiborne in free agency, Carroll has been expected to compete for a starting job. During last week's organized team activities, he worked out with the first team at right cornerback.
The Cowboys selected three cornerbacks in the draft, including second-rounder Chidobe Awuzie and third-rounder Jourdan Lewis. The Cowboys also picked Marquez White in the sixth round. Orlando Scandrick and Anthony Brown were major contributors last season and round out the top three corners on the roster at the moment with Carroll.
Coach Jason Garrett praised Carroll's offseason work last week.
"We've been playing against him for a long time, and he's just a good football player and has been in this league," Garrett said. "He plays a very challenging position, corner, in the NFL. He's been playing it for a long time, and he's played at a high level. He's a physical player. He's a good cover guy. He's a smart football player. We've seen all that already this offseason."