Cushing will be eligible to return to Houston's active roster on Nov. 28, ahead of the team's game that week against the Baltimore Ravens.
It's a significant blow to a Houston team that was routed at home by the Jacksonville Jaguars in Week 1. Cushing, 30, was concussed in Sunday's 29-7 defeat and already had been ruled out for the team's game at Cincinnati on Thursday night.
In a statement, Cushing's lawyer, Harvey Steinberg, said the veteran linebacker "is aware of the negative impact he has had on his team and most important his fans. It is with the deepest remorse that he humbly apologizes to his fans, teammates and coaches."
Cushing will not appeal, according to Steinberg.
The 10-game suspension will cost Cushing over $4 million, plus more if Houston attempts to recoup any of his signing bonus.
Cushing previously was suspended four games in 2010 for testing positive for HCG, a fertility drug that was on the NFL's banned-substances list.
The former first-round pick out of USC was the 2009 AP Defensive Rookie of the Year with the Texans. The honor was jeopardized by the first suspension, but he kept the award after a revote by The Associated Press' awards panel.
Cushing has had a checkered career since his sensational rookie season. Injuries curtailed the 2012 and 2013 seasons, when he got into a total of 12 games. He has never come close to matching his first-year production of 86 tackles, 47 assists, 4 sacks, 4 interceptions, 2 forced fumbles and 10 passes defensed.
Information from The Associated Press and ESPN's Field Yates was used in this report.