According to the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office Department of Corrections, Miller was booked into the Duval County Jail at 4:53 a.m. ET. He was later released on his own recognizance after an initial court appearance, according to multiple reports.
Another hearing was set for Nov. 28.
The incident involved a minor injury. No other details were available, but the Chiefs are aware of the situation.
"This morning we were informed about an incident involving one of our players, Roy Miller," the Chiefs said in a statement. "We are still in the process of gathering details on the situation. We will have no further comment at this time."
The Chiefs are on a bye this week. The AFC West leaders next visit the New York Giants on Nov. 19.
The 30-year-old Miller played four seasons with the Jacksonville Jaguars before being released March 12. He signed with Kansas City on Aug. 2 and has six tackles and one pass breakup in seven games.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.