Coach Doug Pederson described it as a "slight hamstring" strain, and said it occurred during practice on Wednesday. He missed the next two sessions.
Sproles, who has spent the past year rehabbing from an ACL tear, started in the opener against the Atlanta Falcons and finished with five rushes for 10 yards and added four receptions for 22 yards before Jay Ajayi assumed the bulk of the workload in the second half.
In the process, the 35-year-old Sproles passed Marshall Faulk and Steve Smith to move into sixth in career all-purpose yards (19,216).
Special teams will be impacted as well. Sproles is their primary punt returner, while receiver Shelton Gibson returned kicks in the opener. Gibson is questionable with a knee injury. Pederson mentioned Clement, Smallwood and Nelson Agholor as possible kick-return options, and Clement and DeAndre Carter for punt returns.
"They've been getting some work the last couple days," Pederson said.