Barber is the Buccaneers' career interceptions leader with 43 and has made 199 consecutive starts, the longest active streak among NFL players.
"I'm pleased to announce that I'll be back for my 16th season as a Buccaneer," Barber said in a statement released by the team. "Coach [Greg] Schiano, Mark Dominik, and the Glazer family have been terrific throughout this process. I'm really excited about the direction of the team, the moves we've made, and I can't wait to get back to work."
At 36, the five-time Pro Bowl cornerback was the oldest player on the NFL's youngest team last season.
Barber had three interceptions, 79 tackles and a sack last season. With 27 career sacks, he's the only player in league history with at least 40 interceptions and 25 or more sacks.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.