Peterson rushed for 84 yards and two touchdowns on 17 carries in Minnesota's 26-23 overtime victory.
He scored his first touchdown of the season just before halftime, rushing the ball into the end zone from 3 yards out. He scored another touchdown in the third quarter, this time on a 2-yard run.
"My legs are loose," Peterson said. "Seriously, I'm feeling really good. I'm ready to carry the load."
The Vikings had announced that Peterson would start, posting on their twitter page: "He's back! Adrian Peterson is active AND will start today for the #Vikings."
Peterson was listed as questionable to play the Jaguars on the injury report, which by definition gave him a 50-50 chance. The 27-year-old two-time All-Pro pick is recovering from reconstructive surgery to repair two torn ligaments in his left knee last Christmas Eve. He's had no setbacks during his rehabilitation.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.