He returned to the sideline in the second quarter in street clothes with his left arm in a sling. Locker injured the same shoulder in Tennessee's season-opening loss against New England.
Tennessee coach Mike Munchak said after Sunday's 38-14 loss in Houston that Locker was "sore" and will undergo an MRI exam Monday.
After injuring the same shoulder two times in less than a month, Locker was asked if he's worried that he'll have to be out for a while to allow it to heal.
"I don't know any of that at this time," he said. "We'll know a lot more tomorrow."
Locker was sacked by Glover Quin and thrown to the ground. He remained there for a few minutes in pain while trainers attended to him. He eventually got up and walked off the field before being taken to the locker room.
Quin was uncovered at the line, something Locker didn't notice until it was too late.
"I didn't see him," Locker said. "I'd have done something about it if I had seen him."
He had X-rays at the stadium on Sunday, but said he wasn't aware of the results. He said he knew the moment he hit the ground that it was the same kind of injury as the first time.
Matt Hasselbeck came in for Locker and completed 17-of-25 passes for 193 yards and two touchdowns. He also threw two interceptions that were both returned for Houston touchdowns.
"It's always toughest part of playing any game when you have to stand on the sideline and watch your team compete and you're not able to be out there with them," Locker said.