Terms were not disclosed, but a league source told ESPN NFL Insider Adam Schefter that it's a one-year deal.
Jones tweeted about the signing Wednesday, writing: "Love and respect my Jax peeps but thrilled to sign w/ the @houstontexans! Where r all my texans fans?"
Jones, who has spent his entire career with the Jaguars, opening holes for star running backs Fred Taylor and Maurice Jones-Drew, now will be the lead blocker for the Texans' Arian Foster, who led the NFL with 17 rushing touchdowns last season.
Jones has helped Jaguars running backs break the 1,000-yard mark in five different seasons and also post 100-yard performances in 37 games.
The Jaguars selected Jones in the second round of the 2004 draft. He has rushed for 911 yards in his career with 10 touchdowns. He also has 68 receptions for 437 yards and three touchdowns.