Maricopa County prosecutors said Washington's bond was set at $4,200 following his initial court appearance after he was booked into jail on suspicion of two counts of aggravated assault.
A probable cause statement released by Phoenix police said Washington's ex-girlfriend claimed he grabbed her by the throat and shoved her to the ground following an argument at her apartment Wednesday.
The woman told police that Washington also pushed her with two hands, causing her to fall and break her right collarbone, according to court documents.
Police later interviewed the woman and their report noted her clavicle injury along with "road-rash type of scrapes, bruising and cuts to her right arm, right hip and right leg."
A call to Washington's Dallas-based agent, Jordan Woy, wasn't immediately returned Friday afternoon.
The Cardinals said in a statement before Washington was arrested that "these are serious accusations that we are closely monitoring. Until all the facts are determined and out of respect to the process, we will decline any further comment at this point."
Washington led the Cardinals with 134 tackles -- 108 of them solo -- and nine sacks last season and signed a six-year contract extension in September.
He was suspended for the first four games of the 2013 season for violating the NFL's substance abuse policy.