His contract is a one-year agreement, according to multiple reports.
Clabo is expected to play right tackle, with Jonathan Martin moving from the right side to left tackle, where he'll replace the departed Jake Long. Martin played left tackle at Stanford, where he protected quarterback Andrew Luck's blind side. As a rookie last season, he started 12 games at right tackle, then four at left tackle after Long was hurt.
The 31-year-old Clabo, who was released by the Atlanta Falcons earlier this offseason in a salary cap move, was one of four offensive tackles, along with Bryant McKinnie, Eric Winston and Winston Justice, to try out for the Dolphins last week.
McKinnie agreed to a two-year contract to return to the Baltimore Ravens late last week.
The release of Clabo, who was designated as a June 1 cut by the Falcons, cleared about $4.5 million in cap space for the Falcons.
The 6-foot-6, 329-pound Clabo started all 101 games he played for the Falcons, including 16 games in each of the last five seasons at right tackle. He has played the left side in his career, too.
"When I was released and became a free agent, one of the things we wanted to find out was who had interest," Clabo explained in a conference call Sunday. "What teams do I think have use [for a right tackle] and on the move upward in the league? Miami was right there."
Like many of Miami's free-agent acquisitions, Clabo cited the potential of Dolphins second-year quarterback Ryan Tannehill as one of the key reasons why he joined the team.
"We made some big moves in the offseason in free agency, and the draft look like it went really well," Clabo said of the Dolphins. "With the young QB with a lot of upside, I feel like we can make some noise."
Miami also signed undrafted rookie linebacker David Hinds, who played at Florida Atlantic.
Information from ESPN.com AFC East blogger James Walker and The Associated Press was used in this report.