Welker, who has nine touchdown catches this season, started to leave the field and then took a knee. Despite the hit, Welker returned on the drive and added a 9-yard catch, but he did not return to the game following that play.
By the league's concussion protocol, Welker will be limited in practice this week -- Friday would be his first full day of practice at best -- even if he passes a baseline test Monday.
The Broncos (9-1) visit Welker's former team, the New England Patriots, next Sunday night.
Welker was targeted 10 times in the win over the previously unbeaten Chiefs (9-1), finishing with eight catches for 74 yards. The AFC West rivals meet again in two weeks.