The team also waived defensive tackle Jonathan Lewis.
Wilford, a fourth-round draft pick by the Jaguars in 2004, left Jacksonville after four seasons and signed a lucrative deal with Miami.
The Dolphins, who gave him $6 million guaranteed, terminated his contract Monday, Miami's biggest free-agent bust in the Bill Parcells regime.
Wilford caught just three passes for 25 yards last season. He moved from receiver to tight end this year and had a 33-yard touchdown reception against Jacksonville's reserves in the preseason opener. He had no catches in the second preseason game.
Jacksonville's fifth-round draft pick, tight end Zach Miller, missed practice last week with a knee injury.