The club's career scoring leader, who will enter his 10th NHL season, signed an 11-year, $85 million contract extension in July.
"I don't think you need a letter on your sweater to be a leader, but it's definitely a great honor to be captain," Lecavalier said.
The three-time All-Star helped the Lightning when the Stanley Cup four years ago. He scored a league-leading 52 goals during the 2006-07 season, then added 40 goals last season while hiking his franchise-best career totals to 273 goals and 602 points.
This will be Lecavalier's second stint as captain. He also filled the role for two seasons from 1999-2001. Tim Taylor was captain the past two seasons.