General manager Doug Armstrong said Bouwmeester will be sidelined four to six months and that forward Scottie Upshall will be re-evaluated in four weeks after suffering a knee injury.
St. Louis has lost eight of its past 10 games to fall out of the top three in the Central Division and out of a playoff position entirely in the Western Conference.
The 34-year-old Bouwmeester has dressed in 35 games this season and has two goals and five assists. But he was averaging 20 minutes a game when in the lineup, ice time the Blues will have to make up for.
Upshall, who injured a knee Saturday against Dallas, has seven goals and 11 assists in 61 games.