Nylander is Buffalo's first-round pick in the 2016 draft and has a career-high 12 goals and 31 points in 49 games with AHL Rochester this season.
The move on Sunday marks the first time Nylander has been called up this season. He previously had a goal and an assist in seven career NHL games.
Nylander's promotion comes at a time when Buffalo is 0-4-1 in its past five and 2-8-2 in its past 10 following a 3-0 loss at Colorado on Saturday.
The call-up also comes with Sabres captain Jack Eichel facing possible NHL discipline for an illegal check to the head of Colorado's Carl Soderberg. The league's player safety department announced Eichel will have a hearing Sunday for the hit, which occurred during the second period.
The Sabres host Dallas on Tuesday.