Crawford started every playoff game for Chicago last season, helping the Blackhawks win their second Stanley Cup title in four seasons. He went 16-7 with an NHL-best 1.84 goals-against average in the postseason.
The Blackhawks announced the deal Monday. The contract runs through the 2019-20 season.
Crawford was spending the day with the Stanley Cup in his hometown in Quebec when the deal was finalized.
"To have a chance to bring the Cup back home, all of the people I played minor hockey with and grew up with and all of my family, is pretty special to start off with," he said. "To add this on top on it, it's amazing. I want to be in Chicago for my whole career. This is amazing to be able to do this and get this deal done."
After the Blackhawks won the Stanley Cup in 2010, they were forced to let a number of key players leave due to salary cap constraints. One of them was the team's top goalie at that time, Antti Niemi.
"The salary cap is something we have to certainly plan for and think about as an organization, but I don't think it's the focus right now in terms of this," Blackhawks general manager Stan Bowman said. "The reality is we need to have a top-notch goaltender in our organization. We got one right here in Corey. We know him well. He's grown up in our organization. He's experienced the ultimate with our group."
The 28-year-old Crawford was selected by Chicago in the second round of the 2003 draft. Crawford, who made his NHL debut in January 2006, is 83-43 with eight shutouts, a 2.40 GAA and a .913 save percentage in 152 career games with the Blackhawks.
Information from ESPN's Craig Custance and The Associated Press was used in this report.