The World Anti-Doping Agency declared Russia's scandal-ridden drug-fighting operation back in business Thursday, a decision designed to bring a close to one of sports' most notorious doping scandals but one bitterly disputed by hundreds of athletes and described as "treachery" by the lawyer for the man who exposed the corruption.
On a 9-2 vote, the executive committee took the advice of the agency's compliance review panel and declared RUSADA as having satisfied conditions of reinstatement that were gradually softened over the summer.
In most tangible ways, the decision doesn't change much: RUSADA has been up and running for a while, bringing one of the world's largest testing programs back on line with the help of officials from Britain and elsewhere. And Russia's Olympic committee was brought back into the fold after the Pyeongchang Olympics, where athletes who could prove they were clean were able to compete as "Olympic Athletes from Russia."
But RUSADA's reinstatement now clears the country to again bid for major international events -- although soccer's World Cup was held there this summer despite that restriction.
It also clears a major hurdle for Russia's track team to be declared compliant by that sport's international governing body, one of the few to take a strong, consistent stand against doping.
Perhaps most importantly, hundreds of athletes and dozens of world anti-doping leaders see it as a stinging rebuke to the ideal of fair play.
"WADA's decision to reinstate Russia represents the greatest treachery against clean athletes in Olympic history," said Jim Walden, the attorney for Grigory Rodchenkov, the former Moscow lab director who exposed much of the Russian scheme.
Richard McLaren, the Canadian attorney who led WADA's investigation into Russian doping, said he wasn't surprised by the decision, but said WADA had damaged itself and the athletes it is meant to protect. His investigation presented extensive evidence that the Russian doping scheme was directed by then-sports minister Vitaly Mutko, and aided by the FSB, Russia's national police force.
"What's been damaged is the athletes and the structure of (WADA) and what people think of the organization," McLaren told ESPN's T.J. Quinn on Thursday night from Switzerland. "Nobody's brought forward any information that undermines the work we did. It's still valid. Now (WADA has) decided they don't want to act on it. In one sense that's their prerogative."
McLaren said that the letters between WADA leadership and Russian sports minister Pavel Koblokov were likely leaked by Russia to force WADA into action in Thursday's meeting.
"It would have been better off to defer (the decision) and let the entire organization debate it and not respond to the (Russian) misinformation," he said. WADA was "bamboozled into rushing into something."
By reinstating Russia, McLaren said WADA has lost any ability to control what has been a rogue nation in the international sports world.
"What they've done is they've made a decision saying, 'Hey, we weren't getting anywhere with our road map, so we'll let (Russia) write their own road map.' And that's what they did," he said. "In terms of dealing with the Russians, they don't have any levers or controls. It's all in the Russians' hands now. They've lost any oversight over the situation."
WADA had been telegraphing its move since Sept. 14, when it released the recommendation of its compliance review committee. Olympic champion Beckie Scott resigned from that committee afterward.
"I'm profoundly disappointed," Scott said to Canadian broadcaster CBC after the decision. "I feel this was an opportunity for WADA, and they have dealt a devastating blow to clean sport. I'm quite dismayed."
Even in Russia, where the news was welcomed, it came with a sense that there's still work to be done.
"These questions will always follow us," said RUSADA CEO Yuri Ganus, whose appointment to the job was part of the housecleaning at the agency that WADA demanded. "These aren't the kind of skeletons which can lie unnoticed in the closet. These are the skeletons which will be banging on the closet door all the time."
The two biggest roadblocks to RUSADA's reinstatement (and still pending in the eyes of IAAF regarding the track team) involved the country accepting findings from a report by investigator Richard McLaren that concluded the government had engineered the doping scandal to win medals at the Sochi Olympics. It also involved Russia agreeing to hand over a trove of data and samples that could be used to corroborate potential doping violations that stemmed from the cheating.
Over a summer's worth of correspondence between WADA leaders and Russia's sports minister about how to bridge the gap, a pattern emerged of WADA backing down from its initial requirements and, at one point, essentially asking Russia what it would be willing to say in a letter designed to satisfy the WADA review committee.
"We think that a small addition to the letter, if acceptable to you, could ensure that the letter is well received ... and that a positive recommendation is provided," WADA CEO Olivier Niggli wrote to sports minister Pavel Kolobkov in May in a letter obtained by BBC Sport.
In the end, Russia agreed to accept findings of an IOC-commissioned report that put less onus on the Russian government for the scheme, a move that Rodchenkov said earlier this week was done "for the pure purpose of protecting their top-level apparatchiks who destroyed the Olympic Games in Sochi."
Russia also agreed to hand over the samples and data by Dec. 31. If it does not, RUSADA will again be declared noncompliant.
"Without this pragmatic approach, we would continue with the impasse and the laboratory data could have remained out of our reach indefinitely," WADA president Craig Reedie said after Thursday's executive committee meeting in Seychelles.
Critics said reinstating RUSADA before obtaining the data only amounts to accepting another promise from a country that hasn't kept many over the five-year course of the scandal.
Travis Tygart, the CEO for the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency, called the decision "bewildering and inexplicable" and urged a full revamping of WADA. Reedie also serves as a member of the IOC, which is one of the many conflicts of interest that bother critics of the agency.
"Let's be clear: Absolutely nothing will be off the table for how we, the anti-doping community, begin the work of reforming WADA," Tygart said.
Reedie said "WADA understands that this decision will not please everybody."
"Clean athletes were denied places at the Olympic and Paralympic Games, as well as other major events, and others were cheated of medals," he said. "It is entirely understandable that they should be wary about the supposed rehabilitation of offenders."
The Associated Press contributed to this report.