SAN BERNARDINO VALLEY, Ariz. Green and black spotted
frogs loiter beneath the surface of a concrete pond's glassy water,
their bumpy heads occasionally breaking through into the desert
Others hop into the pool from behind tall tufts of dry grass,
diving below their glistening eggs nestled in tangled, floating
A rancher transported the threatened Chiricahua leopard frogs to
the artificial pond here because they were dying in a nearby
reservoir that was being reduced to dried, cracked mud by years of
drought. At the frogs' new home, a rush of water replenishes the
pond when the water level drops.
"I knew something needed to be done," said rancher Matt
Providing artificial safe havens for the frogs is one of many
efforts being carried out to help threatened and endangered species
that have been further imperiled by the drought throughout the
Elsewhere in Arizona, biologists are plucking leopard frogs and
eggs out of drying pools and taking them to museums and zoos to
protect the adults and allow tadpoles to develop. To make sure
endangered Sonoran pronghorns get enough nourishment, officials are
watering the desert to replenish shriveled plants.
With only about 60 Sonoran pronghorns left in the United States,
unconventional measures have become a necessity, wildlife officials
"We dug wells and we are pumping water into the desert to
enhance the nutritional value of the plants they eat," said Paul
Krausman, a University of Arizona wildlife conservation and
management professor. "Those are drastic measures."
In New Mexico, the federal government has offered $580,000 in
emergency funds to refurbish wells to help ensure the threatened
Pecos bluntnose shiner fish survives.
And farmers in the Northwest have sold water to increase flows
for threatened and endangered fish. Environmental groups,
developers and government agencies are working to protect a
federally listed ground beetle, tiger salamander and several shrimp
that live in seasonal pools.
Most of the efforts are intended to help the animals survive the
drought. But officials also are investigating long-term solutions,
saying population spikes and global warming could lead to future
Wildlife officials are working on a recovery plan for the
leopard frogs in the hopes of getting the animals off the
Endangered Species List, where they have been protected since 2002.
Since the frogs have disappeared from more than 75 percent of
their natural range in Arizona and New Mexico, it isn't expected to
be a swift process, said U.S. Fish and Wildlife biologist Jim
"I wouldn't say that we are looking at extinction, but the
species is in dire straits in certain geographic areas," Rorabaugh
Many animals are endangered or threatened because of logging,
urban sprawl, the invasion of nonnative species and other factors
that have harmed wildlife habitat and reduced river flow. The
drought has just made their fights for survival more difficult.
"It is important to help them through a drought because of all
of the other additional problems we have laid on them," said
Melanie Lenart, research associate with Climate Assessment for the
Southwest, a University of Arizona project.
The drought has been crippling the West for years, although a
rainy winter brought some relief across the Southwest. Arizona and
New Mexico had one of their wettest winters in more than a century,
"The question is, is this just a blip of nice precipitation in
the middle of drought, which does happen, or are we really coming
out of the drought?" Lenart said. "That really remains up in the
Wildlife experts note that plants and animals have more
difficulty adapting to drought in the forests and mountains. But in
the desert, where drought conditions exist 43 percent of the time,
species like the Chiricahua leopard frogs should be better able to
adapt, said U.S. Fish and Wildlife spokesman Jeff Humphrey.
"When you see frogs declining," he said, "it throws a red
flag and shows something is going wrong."