The team called it a "first dorsal compartment release and a tenosynovectomy of his left wrist" but did not give a timetable for his return to baseball activities.
"The tendon that was repaired, there was some scar tissue that had built up in there," Red Sox manager John Farrell said. "There was also some inflammation. So to me, it sounds like there was some release of that tendon. How they did that procedure, I'm not sure of. But it created more range of motion and instant relief.
"It was a tendon release. The one that was restricting his motion was the one that was addressed."
Farrell said Pedroia would rejoin the team when it gets back from its 11-day, 10-game trip that started Thursday.
Mookie Betts probably will take over second base for the rest of the season, Farrell said, according to MLB.com.
In discussing the potential surgery earlier in the week, Pedroia said it would not be a major procedure.
"It's kind of like a release or something to get the inflammation out of there," he said. "If that were the case, I would have a normal offseason and be able to lift weights, something that I didn't get a chance to do very much last offseason."
The surgery was performed by Dr. Matt Leibman at Newton-Wellesley Surgery Center in Wellesley, Massachusetts.
Pedroia said it has been an ongoing issue that he started dealing with during the home opener against the Milwaukee Brewers, when he landed badly on his left wrist when upended on a double play relay. At the time, Pedroia was still rehabbing from offseason thumb surgery that was delayed until November as a result of the Red Sox's World Series run.
It was a disappointing season at the plate for Pedroia, who hit .278 with seven home runs, 53 RBIs and six stolen bases -- far lower than his typical season averages.
This is the third successive year in which Pedroia has had surgery for a hand or wrist injury. In addition to repairing his ulnar collateral ligament last November, Pedroia had a pin inserted into his right pinkie finger in October 2012.
Information from ESPNBoston.com's Kyle Brasseur and ESPNBoston.com contributor Douglas Tucker was used in this report.