Prosise, Notre Dame's leading rusher, left the game in the first quarter.
"It's kind of one where he's gonna have to continue to be evaluated," Kelly said. "Shoulder/neck/upper body. He took a -- it wasn't a contact hit; it was contact to the ground. So head/neck/shoulder. He's doing pretty good right now, but we'll evaluate him and he'll be a day-to-day situation."
Asked whether that diagnosis included a potential concussion, Kelly said: "We put him through the protocol, obviously. But I think we're concerned with a little bit of everything right now."
A redshirt junior who had spent most of his college career at safety and at wide receiver, Prosise converted to running back this spring, ascending to the top of the depth chart by Week 2 of this season because of attrition and injury. He has 148 carries this season for 975 yards and 11 touchdowns, in addition to 23 catches for 262 yards and one receiving touchdown.
Prosise had five carries for 28 yards before leaving Saturday's game.
Freshman Josh Adams stepped up in Prosise's place against the Panthers, rushing 20 times for 147 yards and adding a five-yard touchdown reception.
Kelly did not sound too concerned about Prosise's status when asked about Notre Dame's backfield plans in the event that Prosise is out for any extended period of time.
"We'll have to play Dexter [Williams] as well, and Dexter's gonna have to get up to study real quick," Kelly said. "He missed an assignment on that fumble for a touchdown, but he's a really talented runner. We've got to get more reps and quicker, but we'll see what happens with C.J. But I don't expect him to be gone too long.
"Again, we'll see how it goes. We'll probably have more information in the next 24 hours."